- Yadana Pipeline Project
- One of the largest joint ventures funded by foreign investment in Burma since 1988 (US$1.2 billion), constructed by a consortium consisting of the Myanmar Oil and Gas Enterprise, the French oil company Total, Unocal of the United States, and the Petroleum Authority of Thailand. With a length of 666 kilometers, the pipeline extends from the Yadana natural gas field in the Andaman Sea, just south of Rangoon (Yangon) over water and land, a land corridor in northern Tenasserim (Tanintharyi) Division reaching to Thailand, where the gas is used to generate electricity. The project is controversial for two reasons: It generates as much as US$400 million in revenues annually for the State Peace and Development Council, and construction of the pipeline and associated facilities involved extensive forced labor and forced relocation in Tenasserim Division, especially of Karen (Kayin) and Mon villagers. Security was provided by the Tatmadaw, which applied the "Four Cuts" policy to local insurgents and their civilian supporters. A similar project was initiated at the Yetagun natural gas field, involving Japanese, British, and Malaysian partners. Both projects were targets of campaigning by international nongovernmental organizations, and Unocal was brought to court in the United States for complicity in human rights abuses.
Historical Dictionary of Burma (Myanmar). Donald M. Seekins . 2014.
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